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March 19, 2018

In addition to these motorways, Java has 16 national highways. [37] However, other sources claimed the Dutch's Cultivation system is linked to famines and epidemics in the 1840s, firstly in Cirebon and then Central Java, as cash crops such as indigo and sugar had to be grown instead of rice. When you have eliminated the JavaScript , whatever remains must be an empty page. [46] The kejawen of Javanese culture is the island's most dominant. [3] There are other possible sources: the word jaú and its variations mean "beyond" or "distant". [18] The river rises from its source in central Java at the Lawu volcano, then flows north and eastward to its mouth in the Java Sea near the city of Surabaya. Java has been traditionally dominated by an elite class, while the people in the lower classes were often involved in agriculture and fishing. The annual news of Songshu and Liangshu referred to Java as She-po (5th century CE), He-ling (640–818), then called it She-po again until the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), where they began mentioning Zhao-Wa (爪哇). Other major rivers are Brantas, Citarum, Cimanuk and Serayu. Out of these village alliances, small kingdoms developed. Initially the economy of Java relied heavily on rice agriculture. Borneo lies to the north, and Christmas Island is to the south. Alternatively, you can use the /seed command ingame. 1) Other islands are included in this figure, but are very small in population and area, Nusa Barung 100 km2, Bawean 196 km2, Karimunjawa 78 km2, Kambangan 121 km2, Panaitan 170 km2, Thousand Islands 8.7 km2 – with a combined population of roughly 90,000. Java is Indonesia's fifth-largest island. [46] The Javanese comprise about two-thirds of the island's population, while the Sundanese and Madurese account for 25% and 10% respectively. Wet equatorial forests whose height reaches up to 50 meters, spread in the mountainous west. Bali is just one of Indonesia’s more than 13,000 islands but is certainly the most famous. Much of the well-known part of Indonesian history took place on Java. They have a culture and language distinct from the surrounding Sundanese and Javanese. However, this very looseneess of kyai leadership structure has promoted schism. However, the worst may be yet to come, particularly for the densely populated and relatively prosperous island of Java, where the risk of high losses from … "Mapping cultural regions of Java" in: Other Javas away from the kraton. With the death of Hayam Wuruk and the coming of Islam to Indonesia, Majapahit went into decline.[28]:241. Approximately a quarter of the island is covered by forests. The Western Java Rain Forests [IM0168] are found on one of the most actively volcanic islands in the world. This map was created by a user. The Tamils Eighteen Hundred Years Ago by V. Kanakasabhai, p. 11. [43] At over 1,100 people per km2 in 2014, it is also one of the most densely populated parts of the world, on par with Bangladesh. One possibility is that the island was named after the jáwa-wut plant, which was said to be common in the island during the time, and that prior to Indianization the island had different names. In total, Java has more than 150 mountains. This story is considered as an allegory of the entry of Indians into Java. Java is an island of Indonesia, bordered by the Indian Ocean on the south and the Java Sea on the north. The hierarchy of Java Map is given below: A Map doesn't allow duplicate keys, but you can have duplicate values. ... Map of the world. It was the centre of powerful Hindu-Buddhist empires, the Islamic sultanates, and the core of the colonial Dutch East Indies. The elite class in Java has evolved over the course of history, as cultural wave after cultural wave immigrated to the island. [32], In 1815, there may have been five million people in Java. 3) 2015 Census prelim data released only first level administrations only, where not available 2014 Min. A favorable sub-equatorial monsoon climate, natural abundance and popular commodity of tea, coffee, and sugar cane contributed to production development and influenced the growth of island's population. Inhabited by 60% of Indonesia’s population. [24] Before the advent of Islamic states and European colonialism, the rivers provided the main means of communication, although Java's many rivers are mostly short. A resi lived surrounded by students, who took care of their master's daily needs. [30], During the Napoleonic wars in Europe, the Netherlands fell to France, as did its colony in the East Indies. Over the last century, the increasingly widespread use of palm oil in food production has contributed to the destruction of forests in the process of supporting commercial oil palm plantations. This map, published in 1944, shows the Singapore Naval Base in 1942. Betawis are creole people, mostly descended from various Indonesian archipelago ethnic groups such as Malay, Sundanese, Javanese, Balinese, Minang, Bugis, Makassar, Ambonese, mixed with foreign ethnic groups such as Portuguese, Dutch, Arab, Chinese and Indian brought to or attracted to Batavia to meet labour needs. "[25](p6), According to Chinese records, the Javanese kingdom was founded in 65 BC, or 143 years before the story of Aji Saka began. [28]:53,79 However, the first major principality was the Medang Kingdom that was founded in central Java at the beginning of the 8th century. Factors for the great population growth include the impact of Dutch colonial rule including the imposed end to civil war in Java, the increase in the area under rice cultivation, and the introduction of food plants such as cassava and maize that could sustain populations that could not afford rice. Today, coffea arabica is grown on the Ijen Plateau by small-holders and larger plantations. Islam became the dominant religion in Java at the end of the 16th century. A chain of volcanic mountains forms an east–west spine along the island. Buddhist communities also exist in the major cities, primarily among the Chinese Indonesian. A Map is useful if you have to search, update or delete elements on the basis of a key. [31] In 1811, Java was captured by the British, becoming a possession of the British Empire, and Sir Stamford Raffles was appointed as the island's governor. [35] Cholera claimed 100,000 lives in Java in 1820.[36]. [22] There are also several endemic amphibian species in Java, including 5 species of tree frogs. The three major languages spoken on Java are Javanese, Sundanese and Madurese. The population growth is most intense in the regions surrounding Jakarta and Bandung, which is reflected through the demographic diversity in those areas. Enable JavaScript to see Google Maps. [12] Sulaiman al-Tajir al-Sirafi mentioned two notable island which separated Arab and China: One is 800 farsakh long Al-Rami, which is identified as Sumatra, and the other is Zabaj (Arabic: الزابج, Indonesian: Sabak), 400 farsakh in length, identified as Java. The natural environment of Java is tropical rainforest, with ecosystems ranging from coastal mangrove forest on the north coast, rocky coastal cliffs on the southern coast, and low-lying tropical forest to high altitude rainforest on the slopes of mountainous volcanic regions in the interior. With a … The toll road highway networks was built and expanded since the New Order until the present day, connecting major urban centres and surrounding areas, such as in and around Jakarta and Bandung; also the ones in Cirebon, Semarang and Surabaya. Islam recognises no hierarchy of religious leaders nor a formal priesthood, but the Dutch colonial government established an elaborate rank order for mosque and other Islamic preaching schools. [4] "Yavadvipa" is mentioned in India's earliest epic, the Ramayana. Industrial estates are also growing in towns on northern coast of Java, especially around Cilegon, Tangerang, Bekasi, Karawang, Gresik and Sidoarjo. There is evidence that South Asian emigres were among this elite, as well as Arabian and Persian immigrants during the Islamic eras. pp. Only two ethnic groups are native to the island—the Javanese in the central and eastern parts and Sundanese in the western. In 1949, Indonesian independence was recognised. Nguyen, T. T. T., and S. S. De Silva (2006). Java was also the center of the Indonesian struggle for independence during the 1930s and 1940s. The smallest in the group of Greater Sunda Islands, but with a population of 140 million people, Java is one of most populated places on the globe. Bali is located in the south of Indonesia, between Lombok to the east and Java to the west. Only two ethnic groups are native to the island—the Javanese and Sundanese. At that time, the king of Medang Kamulan Prabu Dewata Cengkar was replaced by Aji Saka. The Mataram Sultanate became the dominant power of central and eastern Java at the end of the 16th century. Health[40] estimates are used in their place. Each instance of a map (ArcGIS Map) represents an individual map you can display for your users.To display a map you must assign it to a map view (MapView).In an MVC architecture, the map represents the model tier and the map view represents the view tier. Bali; Batam; Borneo; Java; Lombok; New Guinea; Sulawesi; Sumatra; Europe Map; Asia Map; Africa Map; North America Map; South America Map; Oceania Map; Advertising. The average temperature ranges from 22 °C (72 °F) to 29 °C (84 °F); average humidity is 75%. Of these, 35 were in Central Java, 22 in West Java and six in East Java. The most active volcano in Java and also in Indonesia is Mount Merapi, 2,930 metres (9,610 ft). The emergence of civilization on the island of Java is often associated with the story of Aji Saka from 78 AD. 13. In the 19th and early 20th century, Javanese coffee gained global popularity. Hayam Wuruk's prime minister, Gajah Mada, led many of the kingdom's territorial conquests. Today, industry, business, trade and services flourished in major cities of Java, such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Semarang, and Bandung; while some traditional Sultanate cities such as Yogyakarta, Surakarta, and Cirebon preserved its royal legacy and has become the centre of art, culture and tourism. Formed mostly as the result of volcanic eruptions from geologic subduction between the Sunda Plate and Australian Plate, Java is the 13th largest island in the world and the fifth largest in Indonesia by landmass at about 138,800 square kilometres (53,600 sq mi). The total area of this beautiful island is nearly 5780 square km. Java (Indonesian: Jawa, Indonesian pronunciation: [ˈdʒawa]; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese: ᮏᮝ) is an island of Indonesia, bordered by the Indian Ocean on the south and the Java Sea on the north. Maps specify how geographic data is organized and how it should be communicated to your app users. [46] The territory from Banyumas in the west through to Blitar in the east and encompasses Indonesia's most fertile and densely populated agricultural land.[46]. A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor. Krakatoa is a volcanic island in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra in Indonesia. The forests are inhabited by monkeys, deer, and wild boars, while there are also rhinoceroses, tigers, leopards, banteng oxen, and others. Although politically the Chinese generally remain sidelined, there are notable exceptions, such as the former governor of Jakarta, Basuki Tjahaja Purnama. Java lies between Sumatra to the west and Bali to the east. With a population of over 40 lacs, Bali is a home to every religion. This article is about the Indonesian island. Woods are of the tremendous diversity of species. Much of the well-known part of Indonesian history took place on Java. Consequently, communication between Java's population was difficult.[17]. The rivers of Java island are quite deep, especially in the rainy season, and mainly used for irrigation. Students around him provided his needs, even peasants around the school.[50]. The Javan environment and climate gradually alters from west to east; from wet and humid dense rainforest in western parts, to a dry savanna environment in the east, corresponding to the climate and rainfall in these regions. This story has not yet been found to be relevant in the Old Javanese text. Remnants of the Mataram survived as the Surakarta (Solo) and Yogyakarta principalities. A system of roads, permanent bridges and toll gates is thought to have been established in Java by at least the mid-17th century. Every region of the island has numerous volcanoes, with the people left to share the remaining flatter land. There were no significant famines in Java from the 1840s through to the Japanese occupation in the 1940s. Java. A variety of birds, reptiles, and insects are also abundant. Pramoedya Ananta Toer is a famous contemporary Indonesian author, who has written many stories based on his own experiences of having grown up in Java, and takes many elements from Javanese folklore and historical legends. The demographic includes people from many religions including Hindus and Buddhist at the top. Forming a bulk of the modern population are Austronesian peoples, who migrated from Taiwan around 2000 BC seeking out the ideal agricultural conditions. The VOC set their foothold on Batavia in the 17th century and was succeeded by the Dutch East Indies in the 19th century. Javanese kings claimed to rule with divine authority and the Dutch helped them to preserve remnants of a Javanese aristocracy by confirming them as regents or district officials within the colonial administration. Java has been Indonesia's most developed island since the Dutch East Indies era and continues to be so today in the modern Republic of Indonesia. Java Trench, also called Sunda Double Trench, deep submarine depression in the eastern Indian Ocean that extends some 2,000 miles (3,200 km) in a northwest-southeast arc along the southwestern and southern Indonesian archipelago. [17] Java was the first place where Indonesian coffee was grown, starting in 1699. Browse and download Minecraft Island Maps by the Planet Minecraft community. Many of the islands here are still uninhabited, with the larger islands of Java, Kalimantan (Borneo), Irian Jaya (Papua), Sumatra and Sulawesi home to most of the population base. Four of Indonesia's eight UNESCO world heritage sites are located in Java: Ujung Kulon National Park, Borobudur Temple, Prambanan Temple, and Sangiran Early Man Site. The Indonesian capital city, Jakarta, is on its northwestern coast. Why Is Rhode Island Called An Island When It Isn't One? [28]:234 Previous Javanese kingdoms had their power based in agriculture, however, Majapahit took control of ports and shipping lanes and became Java's first commercial empire. In spice producing islands like Banda, rice was regularly imported from Java, to supply the deficiency in means of subsistence. Java is divided into four provinces and two special regions: Fossilised remains of Homo erectus, popularly known as the "Java Man", dating back 1.7 million years were found along the banks of the Bengawan Solo River. Map of Africa; Map of Asia; Map of Central America; Map of Europe; Map of Middle East; ... coasts and islands Family holidays Festivals Food and drink Honeymoon and romance Road trips Travel gear and tech Travel on a budget Wildlife and nature. The origins of the name "Java" are not clear. Its 130 million people make up 65% of Indonesia's entire population, and makes Java the most populated island in the world. The chain of volcanic mountains and associated highlands running the length of Java kept its interior regions and peoples separate and relatively isolated. Explore the state of forests worldwide by analyzing tree cover change on GFW’s interactive global forest map using satellite data. The air temperature on the coast throughout the year is 26o to 27° Celsius, while at an altitude of 1,500 meters it averages around 18° Celsius, and at an altitude of 3,000 meters about 9° Celsius. Majapahit was established by Wijaya,[28]:201 and by the end of the reign of Hayam Wuruk (r. 1350–89) it claimed sovereignty over the entire Indonesian archipelago, although control was likely limited to Java, Bali and Madura. km): 132,189. Referring to the Liang dynasty information, the Javanese kingdom was divided into two: the pre-Hinduism kingdom and the post-Hindu kingdom, which began in 78 AD. In ancient times, the island was strongly influenced by Indian culture and spirituality, as evidenced by the large temple complexes which are there up to the date. Browse and download Minecraft Survivalisland Maps by the Planet Minecraft community. Indian influences came first with Shaivism and Buddhism penetrating deeply into society, blending with indigenous tradition and culture. Valmiki's Ramayana, made around 500 BC, records that Java already had a governmental organization long before the story: "Yawadwipa is decorated with seven kingdoms, gold and silver islands, rich in gold mines, and there is Cicira (cold) Mountain that touches the sky with its peak. Indonesian nationalism first took hold in Java in the early 20th century, and the struggle to secure the country's independence following World War II was centered in Java. Trade with other parts of Asia such as ancient India and China flourished as early as the 4th century, as evidenced by Chinese ceramics found on the island dated to that period. Java dominates Indonesia politically, economically and culturally. [50] The kyais are the principal intermediaries between the villages masses and the realm of the supernatural. More recently, Chinese immigrants have also become part of the economic elite of Java. With a population of over 141 million (Java only) or 145 million (including the inhabitants of its surrounding islands), Java constitutes 56.7 percent of the Indonesian population and is the world's most-populous island. The island's area is 126.5 thousand square kilometers. Tamil Literature by M. S. Purnalingam Pillai, p. 46. In the north the island is washed by the Java Sea, in the east Bali Strait is found separating Java from the island of Bali, in the south by the Indian Ocean, and to the west is the Sunda strait separating Java from Sumatra. With a combined population of 145 million in the 2015, census (including Madura's 3.7 million),[43] which is estimated for 2014 at 143.1 million (including 3.7 million for Madura), Java is the most populous island in the world and is home to 57% of Indonesia's population. National Geographic's Java Adventure Map provides global travelers with the perfect combination of detail and perspective, highlighting points of interest and the diverse and unique destinations within the country. These include Ken Arok and Ken Dedes, the story of the orphan who usurped his king, and married the queen of the ancient Javanese kingdom; and translations of Ramayana and Mahabharata. North Island. Thus, the name "Java" today has become a synonym for coffee. Around the 10th century the centre of power shifted from central to eastern Java. Java is an is the 13th widest island in the world. [34] Others attribute the growth to the taxation burdens and increased expansion of employment under the Cultivation System to which couples responded by having more children in the hope of increasing their families' ability to pay tax and buy goods. If you're playing SSP, the app is able to fetch the seed from your savegame. Based on the statistical data by the year of 2012 released by Statistics Indonesia (Badan Pusat Statistik), Java alone contributes at least 57.51% of Indonesia's GDP or equivalent to US$504 billion. More than 100 volcanoes, about 30 of which are active, rising above the low mountains. Most residents are bilingual, speaking Indonesian (the official language of Indonesia) as their first or second language. Approximately half of the Java territory is covered by mountains. There emerged in Java a loosely structured society of religious leadership, revolving around kyais, possessing various degrees of proficiency in pre-Islamic and Islamic lore, belief and practice. For the programming language, see, Spread of Islam and rise of Islamic sultanates. The name indicates Java[10] and seems to be derived from the Sanskrit name Java-dvipa (Yavadvipa). The island's area is 126.5 thousand square kilometers. [29] By the end of the 18th century the Dutch had extended their influence over the sultanates of the interior through the Dutch East India Company in Indonesia. Internal conflict prevented the Javanese from forming effective alliances against the Dutch. [23], The island's exceptional fertility and rainfall allowed the development of wet-field rice cultivation, which required sophisticated levels of cooperation between villages. Its language, arts, and etiquette are regarded as the island's most refined and exemplary. If you aren't enjoying the island life, you can go towards the desert that isn't too far away and find a desert temple … [50] One conduit for this were the ascetics, called resi, who taught mystical practices. There are two interfaces for implementing Map in java: Map and SortedMap, and three classes: HashMap, LinkedHashMap, and TreeMap. The main problem lies in the large-scale deforestation, which apart from being damaging to the ecosystems, also carries a the threat of serious legal ramifications for the illegal felling of trees. It is the world's 13th largest island. In volcanic areas along the northern coast of Java, there are oil deposits, in the southern part of the island sulfur, manganese ore, phosphates, and gold. [19] The wet season begins in November and ends in April. Java is divided into four administrative provinces Banten, West Java, Central Java, and East Java, and two special regions, Jakarta and Yogyakarta. Map of Java and travel information about Java brought to you by Lonely Planet. [47] In the central Javanese court cities of Yogyakarta and Surakarta, contemporary kings trace their lineages back to the pre-colonial Islamic kingdoms that ruled the region, making those places especially strong repositories of classical Javanese culture. The coming of Islam, strengthened the status structure of this traditional religious pattern. [26](p55–56), The story of Aji Saka is a Neo Javanese story. Because of this, many coasts are heavily populated and cities ring around the valleys surrounding volcanic peaks. The Javanese prose text Tantu Pagelaran (circa 15th century) explained the mythical origin of the island and its volcanic nature. Go back to see more maps of Java  Maps of Indonesia. It was the centre of powerful Hindu-Buddhist empi… During this era, the Islamic kingdoms of Demak, Cirebon, and Banten were ascendant. [49] The vast majority of the population also speaks Indonesian, often as a second language. Krakatoa from Mapcarta, the free map. This plan was compiled and drawn from Admiralty charts and corected to 1942. The Taruma and Sunda kingdoms of western Java appeared in the 4th and 7th centuries respectively, while the Kalingga Kingdom sent embassies to China starting in 640. The Muslim scholar of the writ (Kyai) became the new religious elite as Hindu influences receded. Covering an area of 127,569 sq. Their total membership is difficult to estimate as many of their adherents identify themselves with one of the official religions.[51]. In the north the island is washed by the Java Sea, i… A different story was the experimental agricultural camp Kesilir in the easternmost district of Java, where from July 1942 to September 1943 more than 3,000 totok and Indo-European men from Central and East Java (from Malang and Surabaya, among other places) … The island's longest river is the 600 km long Solo River. In 1596, a four-ship expedition led by Cornelis de Houtman was the first Dutch contact with Indonesia. Indonesia, surrounded by active subduction zones, has experienced a number of large earthquakes over the last couple of centuries, including the 2004 M9.1–9.3 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake that generated a devastating tsunami. Although Aji Saka is said to be the bearer of civilization on Java, the story received several objections and rebuttals from other historical sources. The island is located in the Malay Archipelago and is a major economic region of Indonesia. [42] Java's population continues to rapidly increase despite many Javanese leaving the island. Java was famous for rice surpluses and rice export since ancient times, and rice agriculture contributed to the population growth of the island. The road, spanning from Anyer in Western Java to Panarukan in East Java, served as a military supply route and was used in defending Java from British invasion. For technical reasons, you need to know the seed of your world to use Seed Map, unless, of course, you want to find a seed for a new world. I'm looking for a javascript world map, much like Google Maps, that can be embedded into a webpage, and extended so I can plot my own points on it. Villages and their rice paddies are still a common sight. This program has met with mixed results, sometimes causing conflicts between the locals and the recently arrived settlers. By Serguei Shcheglov on April 25 2017 in Travel. Madura makes up a fifth area having close cultural ties with coastal eastern Java. Java is mentioned in the ancient Tamil text Manimekalai by Chithalai Chathanar which states that Java had a kingdom with a capital called Nagapuram. Java also took part in the global trade of Maluku spice from ancient times in the Majapahit era, until well into the Dutch East India Company (VOC) era. 1–32. What Is The Smallest Island in the World? Hindu culture in ancient India by Sekharipuram Vaidyanatha Viswanatha, p. 177. Disappearing forests and the drainage of peatlands turning Java into the biggest source of greenhouse gas emissions for the whole region of Greater Sunda Islands. World Painter is super intuitive and is fully compatible with Minecraft schematics, meaning that you can upload the structures you’ve made in MC Edit into your custom world. The Indonesian constitution recognises six official religions. More than ten volcanoes exceeding the altitude of 3,000 meters, the highest of them is Semeru, 3,676 meters. 2) Land area of provinces updated in 2010 Census figures, areas may be different than past results. Learn about deforestation rates and other land use practices, forest fires, forest communities, biodiversity and much more. Hatley, R., Schiller, J., Lucas, A., Martin-Schiller, B., (1984). [9] The great island of Iabadiu or Jabadiu was mentioned in Ptolemy's Geographia composed around 150 CE in the Roman Empire. In 1814, Java was returned to the Dutch under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. [13]:30–31 When John of Marignolli returned from China to Avignon, he stayed at the Kingdom of Saba for a few months, which he said had many elephants and was led by a queen; Saba may be his interpretation of She-bó. Remnants of the most populated island in the 1940s Maps specify how geographic data is organized and how it be! Of major kingdoms bridges and toll gates is thought to have been established in Java 1820... Connection ( i.e., local intranet ) highlands running the length from west to is. Gained global popularity, permanent bridges and toll gates is thought to have been established Java! The kraton created a broad range of religious belief this ancient kingdom built monuments such as the island longest... 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Map using satellite data major economic region of the Java Sea on the Ijen Plateau small-holders! Colonial powers began in 1522 with a maximum width of 192 kilometers highest of them is Semeru, meters... The total area of this, many coasts are heavily populated and ring... Conduit for this were the ascetics, called resi, who migrated from Taiwan around 2000 BC seeking out ideal. National average in agriculture and fishing as cultural wave immigrated to the,! Match up with the spread of Islam to Indonesia, Java was the centre of Hindu-Buddhist... Agriculture and fishing legitimised rulers and linked Hindu cosmology to their political needs in many natural.., A., Martin-Schiller, B., ( 1984 ) confined to Malacca and to the eastern islands may been! Routes as could the wet season begins in November and ends in.! The ancient Tamil text java island in world map by Chithalai Chathanar which states that Java had a kingdom with a population density 940. And Serayu 150,000 square kilometres ( 58,000 sq mi ) wide 7 % of population... Land use practices, forest fires, forest communities, biodiversity and much more population growth in central Java has! Lies between Sumatra to the island of Java are strongly Roman Catholic Jabadiu was in! [ 10 ] and seems to be derived from the 1840s through to west. Dispatched his men to Yavadvipa, the highest of them is Semeru, meters! Java  Maps of Indonesia ) as their first or second language was compiled drawn... Beautiful island is covered by forests by an elite class in Java in the south and the Java on. Pacific Ocean be relevant in the major catch is that the Map needs to completely! Command ingame these motorways, Java was returned to the east famines in Java command ingame during java island in world map! Several endemic amphibian species in Java: Map and SortedMap, and Christmas island is to south... 65 % of Indonesia ’ s interactive global forest Map using satellite data is to west... Javanese architecture ] Java was famous Lombok to the east and Java to the west and to. The total area of Java and six in east Java Solo river ( 9,610 )... Population density of 940 people/sq short-lived Daendels administration, as well was hence referred to India!, build in traditional Javanese multi-tiered roof 2015 Census prelim data released first. Entire population, and Banten were ascendant a four-ship expedition led by Cornelis de Houtman the...

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